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Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Nurses in Dubai Hospital

Abstract

Introduction: Employees determine the success of an organization. Their satisfaction and commitment increases effectiveness at both individual and organizational levels.


Objectives: Objectives were to find the relationship of nurses’ job satisfaction with their selected demographic characteristics; to find the relationship of nurses’ organizational commitment with their selected demographic characteristics and finally to evaluate the relationship between nurses’ organizational commitment towards their organization and their job satisfaction at Dubai hospital.


Methods and Materials: The study undertook an exploratory design to gain an insight into 380 nurses’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction and their few selected demographic variables using standardized questionnaire and then examines the correlation between the nurses’ commitment and job satisfaction.


Results: The majority of nurses (96%) were willing to recommend the organization to others. 65.2% with 21-25 years of experience verbalized high job satisfaction levels. 56.6% of nurses with experience between 0 to 5 years wanted to leave the organization. As experience increased above 21 years, more nurses (65.2%) wanted to stay. (p= 0.006).  Intention to leave organization rises between ages 26 and 45 and steadily falls thereafter until retirement (p= 0.00). Nurses from all age groups favored moderate levels of commitment towards the organization (90.8% for Affective, 80.8% for Continuance and 92.4% for Normative Commitment). Significant relationship was noted between Job satisfaction and Organizational commitment levels among nurses (p=0.006). Nurses’ total job satisfaction was significantly related to their affective commitment (p=0.001) and total commitment levels (p=0.006). Nurses’ total Organizational commitment levels were significantly correlated to their extrinsic job satisfaction (p= 0.006) and total job satisfaction levels (p=.0.006).


Conclusion: Nurses’ job satisfaction was significantly related to their affective commitment and total commitment levels. Also, nurses’ organizational commitment was significantly correlated to their extrinsic job satisfaction and total job satisfaction levels. 


Keywords: Nurses, Organizational commitment, Job satisfaction


 

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Manuscript Email:soniamathen@gmail.com Introduction: Employees determine the success of an organization. Their satisfaction and commitment increases effectiveness at both individual and organizational levels.

Objectives: Objectives were to find the relationship of nurses’ job satisfaction with their selected demographic characteristics; to find the relationship of nurses’ organizational commitment with their selected demographic characteristics and finally to evaluate the relationship between nurses’ organizational commitment towards their organization and their job satisfaction at Dubai hospital. Methods and Materials: The study undertook an exploratory design to gain an insight into 380 nurses’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction and their few selected demographic variables using standardized questionnaire and then examines the correlation between the nurses’ commitment and job satisfaction. Results: The majority of nurses (96%) were willing to recommend the organization to others. 65.2% with 21-25 years of experience verbalized high job satisfaction levels. 56.6% of nurses with experience between 0 to 5 years wanted to leave the organization. As experience increased above 21 years, more nurses (65.2%) wanted to stay. (p= 0.006). Intention to leave organization rises between ages 26 and 45 and steadily falls thereafter until retirement (p= 0.00). Nurses from all age groups favored moderate levels of commitment towards the organization (90.8% for Affective, 80.8% for Continuance and 92.4% for Normative Commitment). Significant relationship was noted between Job satisfaction and Organizational commitment levels among nurses (p=0.006). Nurses’ total job satisfaction was significantly related to their affective commitment (p=0.001) and total commitment levels (p=0.006). Nurses’ total Organizational commitment levels were significantly correlated to their extrinsic job satisfaction (p= 0.006) and total job satisfaction levels (p=.0.006).

Conclusion: Nurses’ job satisfaction was significantly related to their affective commitment and total commitment levels. Also, nurses’ organizational commitment was significantly correlated to their extrinsic job satisfaction and total job satisfaction levels.

Keywords: Nurses, Organizational commitment, Job satisfaction INTRODUCTION Employees are a major contributing factor to their organizational success. Many of the factors affecting employee behaviors in an organizational setting are critical and can be supportive or detrimental to the employee performance. (Pohlman & Gardiner, 2000) . There is Literature available which, shows that Organizational commitment and Job satisfaction are two widely investigated factors which are precedents of employee’s performance. (Bodla & Danish, 200 9); Bodla & Naeem, 2008 a) and (Bodla & Naeem, 2008b) ). Rehman et al. (2013) says job satisfaction is a foremost strife for every organization, irrespective of whether they are public or private organizations, in countries highly developed or underdeveloped Bashir and Ramay (2008) explained job satisfaction as how employees feel about different facets of the job. Singh & Pandey, in 2004 elaborated that since jobs are comprised of various aspects, the idea of job satisfaction is often conjured up as a multidimensional build up of many elements, generally called job satisfaction facets. Common job satisfaction facets includes appreciation & promotion, pay & benefits, job conditions, coworkers, supervision, and organization’s policies & procedures. The other important organizational concept examined widely in managerial literature is organizational commitment, because of its significance for organizational performance and effectiveness. It is also seen that employees who possess higher levels of affective commitment towards their job/career are also found to exhibit higher levels of normative and continuance commitments (Cohen, 1996) .

Background & Need for study Employees are among the most important determinants and leading factors that determine the success of an organization in a competitive environment. Fiorita et al., (2007) said that if they are dealt properly, their commitment can lead to organizational benefits like increased effectiveness, decreased absenteeism and turnover, increased performance and productivity, at both individual and organizational levels. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs perform their duties well and are committed to their job, and eventually to their organization. Thus, it is very important that employers know the factors affecting their employees’ job satisfaction level would affect the performance of the organization too (Awang et al., 2010) . A study in Shkodra Municipality, Albania by Suma, S. & Lesha, J (2013) showed that the employees’ commitment and job satisfaction were under-researched area especially in the public sector institutions of Albania. The study findings indicated that the satisfaction with work itself, quality of supervision and pay satisfaction had significant positive influence on organizational commitment of municipality employees. A study by El-Salibi B. A (2012) conducted in the Ministry of health, UAE, established growing dissatisfaction among public sector nurses due to the rising demands for continuing education and professional development programs, slow promotions, discrepancies from job description, job settings, rising workload, shortage of nurses and lack of acknowledgement. The study recommended to further probe into any existing relationship between nurses’ job satisfaction and their organizational commitment. LITERATURE REVIEW Organizational commitment is the employees’ frame of mind of being committed to facilitate in the accomplishment of the organization’s goals, and involves the employees’ levels of identification, involvement, and loyalty (Caught & Shadur, 2000) . It is an emotional response driven by employee behavior, belief and attitude; ranging between very low to very high levels. Another study in 1976 by J. R. Hackman and G. R. Oldham said if employees could satisfy their needs at work, it could lead them to remain devoted to their organization. Meyer and Allen (1997) identified three kinds of organizational commitment: affective, continuance, and normative. Affective commitment (or moral commitment) happens when employees cling to the values and goals of the organization. They become sentimentally attached to their organization; start feeling intimately responsible for their organization's success. Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L, Topolnyutsky L. (2002). These employees mostly exhibit positive work perspectives, higher level of achievement, and a desire to remain in the organization.

Moreover, studies by J. R. Hackman and G. R.

Oldhamin 1975 and J. P. Meyer, N. J. Allen, and I.

R. Gellatly, in 1990 stressed that affective commitment was higher among employees who have their needs met with their organizational experience when compared to employees who possess high competencies but not so satisfying organizational experience. Continuance commitment happens when the basis of employees’ connection with the organization is their returns, their efforts and the involved costs if they were to leave. Allen and Meyer (1990) described continuance commitment as a type of emotional association to the organization, which speaks for the degree of feeling trapped in place a person experiences because of the high cost involved in leaving. In other words, it refers to employees’ judgment on whether the expenditure of leaving the organization is greater than that of staying (Alkahtani 2015) . These employees put in their best efforts only when their benefits meet their expectations. Normative commitment occurs when individuals go on with an organization based on the expected code of conduct or social norms. These individuals value obedience, foresight, and formality. Research suggests that similar behaviors and temperament are displayed by employees with normative commitment and those with affective commitment. To sum up, as Suma and Lesha, (2013) and Meyer et al., (1993) say, affective commitment happens when employees wants to stay; continuance commitment happens when the employees need to stay; and the normative commitment happens when the employees feel ought to stay in the organization. Strong evidence is found from studies on commitment that there is a positive relationship between affective and normative commitment and continuance commitment is negatively related to organizational outcomes such as performance and citizenship behavior (Hackett et al., 1994) .

Job satisfaction, as stated by Locke E. A. & Henne D.C. (1986), could be defined as ‘the cheerful emotional state of mind that occurs in people when they realize their motives (or values) at work’.

Spector PE (1997) explained job satisfaction as the way people feel about their work and its various bearings. It implies the extent of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in (degree to which people like or dislike) their job. It is definitely a perspective or attitudinal variable. Job satisfaction can be viewed as a global feeling with regard to job or even as a related forecast of attitudes about different aspects of job. This global and facet outlook can be utilized to get a complete depiction of employees’ job satisfaction. This was further reinforced by a study by Schermerhorn, in 2000, which referred to job satisfaction as the positive or negative feel of employees about their work. It is the attitude towards the tasks and towards the physical and social conditions of the workplace. Job satisfaction is also a catalyst that leads to high levels of individual performance and positive work relationships. Job Satisfaction, in simple terms tells us how content someone is with regard to his or her job and the sense of accomplishment they get from doing it. It can come from the rewards or incentives one gets as they do their job. Rewards can vary from a mere feeling of content and gratification, to monetary gains to the feel of recognition and prestige at work. While a good pay works well for some, there are a few who stay satisfied with their job due to the emotional gratification they get from simply doing their job (For example: nurses get greatly encouraged when their patients thank them with a smile). There are others for whom reputation and regard works (eg: politicians). Therefore, it is very important that leaders realize what factors keep their subordinates motivated, dynamic and progressive. Some hard working employees will feel rewarded when they get promoted. Promotion is a method of staff recognition for their work and helps them to feel good about their job and the company. Another aspect of job satisfaction is the sense of security; the feel of preservation many get by just knowing their organization is stable. It is very important for some to feel secure. The working atmosphere and coworkers also influence one’s job satisfaction. M. Topa and O. Gider, (2012) pointed out that absolutely satisfied employees contribute greater achievement and value to the growth of their organization.

Job satisfaction and Organizational Commitment From way back the Hawthorne studies until the 21st century, satisfaction towards job and commitment to organizations have been a hot topic for discussion amongst academicians and practitioners. It has increased greatly since then, due to the significant impact they have on organization and individual behaviors (Al-Aameri, 2000) . It was found that employee satisfaction and commitment are clear indicators to the harmony between the team of employees and their management (Tonges et al., 1998) . According to Meyer et al. in 2002, job satisfaction is a determining factor of organizational commitment.

While organizational commitment refers to employees’ emotional responses towards their organization, job satisfaction differs by referring towards employees’ responses towards their job.

Again, past research study in 1990, by Mathieu & Zajac found a conclusive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A direct link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment was found by Williams and Hazer (1986), wherein job satisfaction was an antecedent of organizational commitment. This thought assumes the fact that an employee’s orientation towards a particular job precedes his or her orientation toward the whole organization. But few other past empirical researches have indicated a low correlation between job satisfaction, organization related commitment, and the intention to leave the organization which suggests that no direct relationship exists. There are committed, satisfied employees who think of leaving, and ambivalent, dissatisfied employees who decide to steadfastly remain at their jobs (Nunn, 2000; Norizan, 2012) . Kovach (1977) defined that “job satisfaction is recognized as a component of organizational commitment”, while other researchers have clearly stated that job satisfaction is a predictor of organizational commitment (Porter et al., 1974; Price, 1977; Spector, 1997) . Whether job satisfaction is a predictor of or a component of organizational commitment, the differences between organizational commitment and job related satisfaction can be viewed in various ways (Mowday et al., 1982) . Several professions have researched the relationship between organizational commitment and satisfaction towards job. Most of these studies whether in the nursing profession or other professions found a positively significant relationship between them (Kirsch, 1990; Al-meer, 1995; Knoop, 1995; Mc Neese-Smith, 1996) . Job satisfaction is more of a response to a specific job or aspect of a job, while commitment is a more global response (Weiner, 1980). Mowday et al., (1979) too argued that organizational commitment is a more holistic and general emotional response to the organization while job satisfaction “reflects one’s response either to one’s job or to certain aspects of one’s job”.

Organizational commitment is a bigger indicator employee’s bond with the organization than to the specific job tasks or the work environment (Gardner, 1990) . In fact, according to Allen and Meyer, (1990); Meyer and Herscovitch, (2001), employees’ emotional attachment to their organization may arouse a strong personal commitment and enable them to experience a sense of belonging. Organizational commitment is less influenced by daily events than job satisfaction; it develops more slowly but consistently over time, and therefore is seen to be a more complex and enduring construct (Mowday et al., 1979) . Job satisfaction is one of the attitudinal constructs that has been shown to be related to organizational commitment (Steers, 1977), but its treatment as an independent construct should be emphasized. A number of factors distinguish job satisfaction from organizational commitment. Thus organizational commitment focuses on attachment to the employing organization as a whole, including the organization’s goals and values, while job satisfaction focuses on the specific task environment where an employee performs his or her duties (Mowday et al., 1979) . Organizational commitment is less influenced by daily events than job satisfaction; it develops more slowly but consistently over time, and therefore is seen to be a more complex and enduring construct (Mowday et al., 1979) . Furthermore, job satisfaction and organizational commitment do not necessarily occur simultaneously: it is possible that an employee may exhibit high levels of job satisfaction without having a sense of attachment to, or obligation to remain in, the organization.

Similarly, a highly committed employee may dislike the job he/she is doing (exhibiting low levels of job satisfaction) (McPhee & Townsend, 1992). While generally research supports a positive association between commitment and satisfaction the causal ordering between these two variables remains both controversial and contradictory (Martin & Bennett, 1996) OBJECTIVES: 1. To find the relationship of nurses’ job satisfaction with their selected demographic characteristics 2. To find the relationship of nurses’ organizational commitment with their selected demographic characteristics 3. To evaluate the relationship between nurses’ organizational commitment towards their organization and their job satisfaction at Dubai hospital.

Hypotheses Null Hypothesis related to Objective 1: To find the relationship of nurses’ job satisfaction with their selected demographic characteristics Null Hypothesis H0(1a): There is no significant relationship between nurses’ age and their job satisfaction level.

Null Hypothesis H0(1b): There is no significant difference in the levels of job satisfaction among nurses working in different specialties in Dubai Hospital.

Null Hypothesis H0(1c)):. There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ total work experience in Dubai Health Authority and their job satisfaction levels. Null Hypothesis H0(1d): There is no relation between Nurses’ willingness to recommend their hospital to others and their nationality Null Hypothesis related to Objective 2: To find the relationship of nurses’ organizational commitment with their selected demographic characteristics Null Hypothesis H0(2a): There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ age and their levels of organizational commitment towards the organization.

Null Hypothesis H0(2b): There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ educational status and their levels of organizational commitment.

Null Hypothesis H0(2c): There is no significant difference in the levels of organizational commitment among nurses working in different specialties in Dubai Hospital.

Null Hypothesis H0(2d): There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ total work experience in Dubai Health Authority and their intention to leave the organization.

Null Hypothesis H0(2e): There is no significant relationship between nurses’ intention to leave the organization in case of a good offer with respect to their age.

Null Hypothesis related to Objective 3: To evaluate the relationship between nurses’ organizational commitment towards their organization and their job satisfaction at Dubai hospital.

Null Hypothesis H0(3):: There no significant relationship between the nurses’ commitment towards their organization and their job satisfaction.

Research Design The study undertook an exploratory design to gain an insight into nurses’ commitment towards organization and job satisfaction and their few selected demographic variables. Secondly, this research moves to the descriptive research design, wherein the study uses the traditional Survey method. Using a standardized questionnaire, the researcher asks questions pertaining to the levels of commitment towards organization and job satisfaction among nurses led by the above Nurse Leaders. Finally, the research examines the correlation between the nurses’ commitment towards organization and job satisfaction.

Sample Plan Research Setting The study was conducted in a multispecialty public sector hospital in Dubai, i.e.; Dubai hospital. This 600 bedded hospital is one of the four major hospitals under Dubai Health Authority. The Dubai Health Authority (DHA) is a government organization overseeing the health system in Dubai, one of the seven emirates in the United Arab Emirates.

Research Population The target nurse population in this study includes all the nurses who work at the bedside in Dubai Hospital. This group excludes all the Nurse Leaders (Nurse Supervisors, Charge Nurses and Shift Incharges) who lead team of nurses. There are 23 inpatient wards and they fall under various specialties like Critical Care Units, Pediatrics, Neonatology, Maternity, Surgical, Medical, Nephrology, Oncology, Hematology, Cardiology and VIP areas. Besides these, there are day-case beds for Emergency, Antenatal, Outpatients, Dialysis, Rheumatology, Infusion centre, Operation theatres, Cath Lab and Interventional Radiology departments. Data was collected from all the Nurses working in these areas except the Nurse Leaders.

Sample Design Random Sampling method was used for the selection of the nurses to test their Organizational commitment and Job Satisfaction levels. Data on organizational commitment and job satisfaction was collected from these 380 nurses (i.e.; 38% of the remaining 1000 nurses in Dubai Hospital). The sample of respondents was classified on the basis of their age, gender, marital status, country/region, job title and their specialty and their varying range of education. The samples were also assessed on their total nursing experiences and their experiences in Dubai Health Authority. This classification will help in ensuring a representative sample.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 380 questionnaires were sent to the nurses in Dubai hospital, with 380 completed questionnaires being returned (100% return rate). In addition, the tool comprised of questions related to demographic data, to obtain information on nurses’ age, gender, marital status, country/region and their varying range of education, their total nursing experiences and their experiences in Dubai Health Authority, job title/designation and the specialty they belonged to. The first tool is the Job Satisfaction Scale (the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) short form) This MSQ short form by Weiss et al., (1967), comprises of 20 questions that focus on intrinsic as well as extrinsic reinforcement factors affecting nurses’ attitude. We can score the form on three separate scales: intrinsic, extrinsic and general satisfaction. Using a Likert-type scale, this MSQ form gives alternative of five responses for each of the 20 questions, ranging from ‘very dissatisfied’ (score 1) to ‘very satisfied’ (score 5).

Two questions are added in the end; one asks for their overall job satisfaction level on a scale of 1 to 5 (The same Likert scale used above) and the other asks about their intention to leave the organization.

The second tool is the Organizational Commitment Scale (OCQ) by Meyer & Allen’s (1997) utilized by Brown B. B (2003) will be used to measure organizational commitment. A 7-point Likert type scale is used to rate three eight-item components, that ranges starting with strongly disagree (score of 1) to strongly agree (scored as 7).

The three forms of organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative) are addressed by questions on interest to continue in organization, if it is hard to leave organization and if organization itself deserves employee’s loyalty.

A covering letter and consent form explaining the nature and purpose of the research and assuring the respondents of absolute confidentiality accompanied the above questionnaires. The respective ward Charge Nurses who had been enlightened about the purpose of the study, were assigned to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The process of distribution and collection of the questionnaires was conducted over two weeks and the entire data collection from all specialties, was completed in a period of one month. For the purposes of testing the research hypotheses, a number of statistical techniques were employed. These included both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The data were analyzed with the use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Demographic

Variables

Gender

Age (in Years) Wards /Specialty

Nationality Level of Education

Job Title & Designation

Male

Female 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-60

Outpatient Department Emergency Department & Critical care

Units

Operation Theatres Pediatric units & Neonatal ICU

Surgical Units

Maternity units and clinics Hematology, Oncology & VIP units, Case

Management Coronary Care Unit, Cath Lab &

Cardiology units Medical, Nephrology & Dialysis Units

Non-Local Arabs

Indian Filipino Pakistani

African Diploma in Nursing Bachelors in Nursing

Masters in Nursing PhD in Nursing (Or ongoing)

Staff Nurse Assistant Nurse RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. An overview of the Nurses’ Demographic Profile 26 58 41 43 29 28 63 20 224 126 4 6 52 314 13 1 368 12 % The Nurse Respondents comprised of Registered nurses and Assistant nurses in Dubai Hospital. Among the 380 nurse respondents, 368 were nurses; they occupied 96.8% of the 380. The rest of the 3.2% (12 out of 380) were Assistant nurses. Among these respondents, Table 1 shows that only 10.3 percent (39 nurses) were males and rest of the 89.7% was female nurses (341 nurses). This data supported the previous findings by the ANA (American Nurses Association) Fast facts ‘The Nursing Workforce’ in 2014 stated there were only 11 percent of male nurses licensed between 2010 and 2013. The researcher found that the nurses population classification under five different age groups. Largest group nurses (225 out of 380) 59.2 percent were aged between 26 to 35 years of age. Another 26.3 percent (100 out of 380) were middle aged between 36 to 45 years. Only 0.8 percent (3 out of 380 nurses) fell under the youngest age group (18 to 25 years of age). Another small 3.2 percent (12 out of 380) nurses comprised the oldest age group of 56 to 60 years.

This is contradictory to the ANA findings in 2014 that found as high as a 53 percent of working nurses over the age of 50 years. Table 1 also explains the classification of nurses with respect to their nationality. Again, Indians comprised the largest proportion (58.9%) of nurses among the 380 nurse population, which were 224. Filipino nurses made for the second highest number (126 out of 380, i.e.; 33.2%). 4 out of 380 were from Pakistan and 6 out 380 (1.6%) were from Africa. 20% of the nurses were Arabs but unlike the Nurse Leader population, there were neither Emiratis/Locals nor Iranians among these nurses. The above data is consistent with the Gulf News Health updates published in March 2013 that stated only three per cent of the total nursing workforce in the UAE were Emiratis. The total figure is expected to reach eight per cent by 2015. Dr Fatima Al Rifai, Board Secretary and Member of the Council said that increasing Emirati nurses was a challenge in the nursing field of the country and it said this could be done by removing bottlenecks in nursing education and making the profession attractive with healthy work environments and benefits, easing licensing, and increasing federal funding mechanisms to prepare more nurses. Another executive mentioned that through laws and provisions, the image of nursing should change to attract new Emirati nurses into the profession. In a later article published in the National – UAE Edition, 2015, the WHO said the UAE was lagging behind regionally and globally in the number of nurses and midwives working in the country. The World Health Organization’s 2015 World Statistics Report found the UAE lagging behind with just 31 nursing and midwifery personnel for every 100,000 population. In comparison, the other GCC neighbours like Kuwait has 45 per 100,000, Saudi Arabia has 48, Oman 53 and Qatar 118. Only Bahrain had a fewer number (23). The article stated there was a lack of interest in nursing and midwifery in this country. The director of nursing and midwifery at Al Ain Cromwell Hospital said nurses’ work was not well understood and in the UAE culture they misunderstood nurses as people who served or even sadly, as maids. Another hospital administrator at Brightpoint Royal Women’s Hospital said the country totally relied on overseas recruitment for nurses; nurses no longer want to be at the bedside because they aspire to be in leading positions that did not require them to work long hours or night shifts. Nurses also feel that they are not remunerated sufficiently for the amount of effort they put into their work, especially since they work in very high-risk conditions. 3.4 percent (13 out of 380) have completed their Masters and one of the nurses (0.3%) is working on PhD. 13.7 percent of nurses (52 out of 380) are Diploma holders in Nursing. The researcher found that 314 out of 380 nurses were Degree holders in Dubai Hospital. In other words, 82.6% of nurses had completed their Bachelors programme in nursing. This data supported the previous findings by the ANA (American Nurses Association) Fast facts ‘The Nursing Workforce’ in 2014 which stated that 55% of the nursing workforce held a bachelor’s or higher and predicted 80 percent of registered nurses to hold a bachelor’s degree or higher by 2020. In contrast to the leader group, 47.1% nurses among the 380 respondent nurses had a total experience between 6 to 10 years.

Surprisingly, more than half of the nurses (52.1% i.e.; 198 out of 380) had a DHA experience of 0 to 5 years only, which indicated the hospital had a good bunch of new nurses. The researcher found that 85.8% of the nurses (328 out of 380) had an experience range between 0 to 15 years in DHA. There is a steady fall in the count for a DHA experience of 16 years and above. The above findings were in line with very recent news by Forster, K. (2017) that announced an almost 600 nurses with at least a decade’s experience had left the profession last year. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) said nearly twice (591) as many senior nurses, who had been working for 10 years or more, decided to quit the profession last year compared to 323 during the same period three years ago i.e.; in 2013-2014. Janet Davies, the RCN’s chief executive blamed the staff shortages, relentless pressure and poor pay for the apparent exodus of experienced nurses as revealed by the analysis of organization’s membership data. Data Interpretation for Objective 1, Null Hypothesis H0(1a): There is no significant relationship between nurses’ age and their job satisfaction level. Hig

h Abo ve 50 0 0.0% 19 48.7 % The above table illustrates the relationship between age of the Respondent with the ranges of different types of Job Satisfaction (Intrinsic/Extrinsic/General). There were 3 respondent nurses from the age group of 18-25 yrs, 225 nurse respondents between age of 26-35 yrs, 100 from age of 36-45 yrs, 40 between age of 4655 yrs and 12 responded from age between 56-60 yrs. The youngest group of nurses voted for medium intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, nevertheless 2 out of 3 agreed for high general job satisfaction levels. This is similar to the oldest age group (55-60 years of age) ; maximum nurses in this age group claimed to have medium intrinsicextrinsic and high general job satisfaction levels. In contrast, most of the nurses from the rest of age groups agreed on medium levels of all three types of job satisfaction. This implies that while the younger nurses were enthusiastic and eager to explore and learn, the senior group above 56 was satisfied having lined up their skills with their jobs, had greater influence and freedom and hence were generally more satisfied. Nevertheless, there is no significant relation between age and job satisfaction levels (Chi square of all three types of Job Satisfaction levels > 0.05).

These findings are in line with the news article in Fortune by Bach, N. (2017) which said it’s the age that causes to dislike the job when the novelty of work officially wears off. A survey of more than 2,000 employees by Happiness Works on behalf of human resource firm Robert Half concluded that older workers tend to be much more miserable at work than younger colleagues. It said that onethird of the survey-takers over 35 found their jobs stressful, whereas only a quarter of those in the 18-35 age bracket felt the same. With fewer years in the workforce, it is possible that young people are still optimistic about their career and job prospects and are not yet burned out. While workers in later stages of their careers feel they possess skills that are aligned with their jobs, exercise greater influence and more freedom at work, and are tapping their strengths—which can contribute to happiness. Again, a study by Clark, A., Oswald, A. and Warr, P. (1996) provided strong evidence towards a U-shaped relationship between age and job satisfaction. Young employees felt satisfied with their job not only because of the novelty of their situation but also because they felt pleased to have a job in comparison with their unemployed peers. However, their expectation may rise towards middle age, as more of their peer group finds attractive jobs, with a consequential decline in their level of job satisfaction. Also, as workers gain labor market experience, they also acquire information about the nature of work to compare against their prior expectations regarding their own job, and this later comparison may be dissatisfying. The upward sloping part of the U shape could come from reduced aspirations, realizing there were few alternative jobs, older workers are more satisfied not only because they are better rewarded but also because they expect less or because they care less about such comparisons.

Data Interpretation for Objective 1, Null Hypothesis H0(1b): There is no significant difference in the levels of job satisfaction among nurses working in different specialties in Dubai Hospital. Belo w 40 40 – 70 Abo ve 70 Tota l

TOTAL JS

RANGE

Count % within Specialty

Count % within Specialty

Count % within Specialty Count

0 0.0% The hospital is divided into 9 different complexes or specialties; each of these is controlled by a single Nurse Supervisor and a number of Charge Nurses. The study examined the job satisfaction levels in each of the specialty. 74 out of 380 (19.5%) participated from the Emergency and Critical care departments. The second highest participation was by 63 nurses from Medical, Nephrology and Dialysis units. The least number of nurses (18 out of 380 i.e.; 4.7%) participated from the Outpatients department; however they had the highest job satisfaction levels (13 out 18 i.e.; 72.2%). 71.4%, 20 among the 28 nurses from Coronary care, Cath 0 0.0% e rnm& liitcceraa iteraonp seh cy t regn te tera Em eapD rCO T

1 3.8% SPECIALTIES IN DUBAI HOSPITAL its l its itcun taan UClanU r eoN Iic ieadP & rguS 0 1 0 0.0% 2.4% 0.0% itteraynM itsandnu ilisccn ,lteooagyHm ,lIcgoyonPVO itsseanuC& rrerayaoonCCtgM ,ittaahbnLCU ilroaoygdC&,ilceadMitsun lreoogyhpN& iliitsssyanUD

1 0 1 3.4% 0.0% 1.6% Lab and Cardiology specialty also voiced high satisfaction levels. Other specialties like Surgical units and Pediatric/Neonatal Specialties also had a more number of nurses voting for high levels of satisfaction. Nurses from two of the specialties voiced almost same levels medium and high levels of job satisfaction, the Emergency and Critical Care specialty and the Medical, Nephrology and Dialysis complex. More nurses from Operation Theatre, Maternity and Hematology /Oncology/VIP/Case Management complexes showed medium levels of job satisfaction. Very few nurses had low levels of job satisfaction. This included one nurse each from Operation Theatre, Surgical, Hematology/Oncology/VIP/Case Management and Medical/Nephrology/ Dialysis complexes. A Chi square value of 0.216 shows the finding was insignificant. (Value<0.05) Difference in satisfaction levels in different specialties could be due to differences in a range of factors like extent of work/life balance, flexibility in duty/off schedules relationship with coworkers, educational assistance available, leadership and management. Nevertheless, all these departments had some similar factors like grade, salary, leave and room for growth. Landy FJ (1989) said the differences in job satisfaction among different units in an organization can be diagnostic of potential trouble spots.

Data Interpretation for Objective 1, Null Hypothesis H0(1c)): There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ total work experience in Dubai Health Authority and their job satisfaction levels.

Below 40

40 - 70

Above 70

Total

Count

% within Total DHA Experience Count 85 % within 42.9% Total DHA Experience Count 110 % within 55.6% Total DHA Experience Count 198 % within 100.0% Total DHA Experience % within 52.1% TOTAL JS RANGE

Pearson Chi-Square 28 45.9% The Chi Square value of 0.778 indicates findings are insignificant (value >0.05). Although this is true, there seems a clear pattern between the nurses’ total work experience in Dubai Health Authority and their job satisfaction levels. 65.2% (which is 15 out of 23) with 21-25 years of experience in DHA voted for high job satisfaction levels. Again, 55.6% (110 nurses out of 198) from experience level of 0-5yrs had high levels of job satisfaction. It was seen that 100% of all between experiences of 31 to 40 years had high satisfaction levels. In contrast, 7 out of 10 (70%) of nurses with an experience of 26-30 years had medium satisfaction levels. Similarly, more nurses with a DHA experience of 11 to 20 years agreed on medium level of job satisfaction. This data eventually leads us to believe that job satisfaction levels are high among the novice nurses, dips to medium levels above 5 years of working and later tends to rise back to high levels with longer years of experience.

The above findings were similar to the recent study conclusions of Riza, S.D., Ganzach, Y. & Liu, Y. (2015) that people became less satisfied as their tenure within a given organization increased, yet as people aged – and transitioned from organization to organization – their satisfaction increased Data Interpretation for Objective 1, Null Hypothesis H0(1d): There is no relation between Nurses’ willingness to recommend their hospital to others and their nationality Willingness to recommend own organization to others is an important metric related to employee satisfaction. 100 percent of nurses from Pakistan, Africa and Philippines were willing to recommend the organization to others. The largest group of respondents were from India and 96.4 percent of them were motivated enough to recommend the hospital to others. 16 out of 20 (80 percent) of the Non-local Arab nurses also agreed to recommend organization to others. The Chi Square value of 0.00 (<0.05) shows the findings were significant. Data Interpretation for Objective 2, Null Hypothesis H0(2a): There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ age and their levels of organizational commitment towards the organization.

Most of the nurses from all age groups favored moderate levels of commitment towards the organization; 90.8% for Affective commitment, 80.8% for Continuance commitment and 92.4% for Normative Commitment. The second largest number of respondents agreed on high levels of commitment towards organization (30 nurses (7.9%) for Affective commitment, 62 nurses (16.3%) for Continuance commitment and 22 nurses (5.8%) for Normative Commitment). However, a very small number of 5 nurses (1.3%) marked low levels of Affective commitment, 11 nurses (2.9%) for Continuance commitment and 7 nurses (1.8%) for Normative commitment. These were mainly between the ages of 26 to 45 years of age. Surprisingly, a good number from the same age group had voted for high levels of commitment too. The Chi Square values stands insignificant for all types of commitment levels (all values > 0.05). Mwangi, K.M. (2014) performed a study among Police officers in Kenya; the findings indicated that age and job rank were positively related to employee commitment. It found the older the officers are and the higher the ranks they hold, the more likely they are to continue working in the police service. In contrast, Jones, A. (2015), carried out a study on 145 nurses in the state of Alabama, where he looked at whether nurses from different generations differ in their levels of organizational commitment using a questionnaire. Nurses from different generations showed the same levels of organizational commitment. Another study by Cohen, A. (1993) found the relations between the variables age and organizational commitment to be relatively weak. 58.70% 34.20% Bachelors in

Nursing Masters in

Nursing PhD in Nursing

Total

Count % within Level of

Education

Count % within Level of

Education

Count % within Level of

Education

Count % within Level of

Education

Count % within Level of

Education Diploma in

Nursing Data Interpretation for Objective 2, Null Hypothesis H0(2b): There is no significant relationship between the nurses’ educational status and their levels of organizational commitment. The above findings reveal that most (94.2%) of the nurse respondents, irrespective of their education levels, had moderate commitment levels towards their organization. 20 out of 380 nurses (5.3%) marked high commitment levels on the questionnaire. 16 among them were degree holders. Chi Square value of 0.995 (>0.05) proved the findings insignificant. Jones, A. (2015), whose study findings revealed that the LPNs showed significantly less affective commitment, that is, lower feelings of loyalty to their workplace, than RNs. The study conclusions differed by stressing that there existed an association between nursing qualifications and levels of organizational commitment and it was critical for building organizational stability and effectiveness, and for nurse recruitment and retention.

Data Interpretation for Objective 2, Null Hypothesis H0(2c): There is no significant difference in the levels of organizational commitment among nurses working in different specialties in Dubai Hospital 0 0.0% 0.0% 20 - 40

Count 18 73

Below 20

Above 40 Total

The above table shows varying levels of commitment among the different specialties of the hospitals. The highest commitment levels noted was in the section of Emergency and Critical care units (19.5%) and the second highest (16.6%) in the Medical & Nephrology units. The outpatient department and the Operation theatre reflected comparatively lower commitment levels. However the chi-square value 0.228 (>0.05) implies no significant relation between the two. In contrast, a s t i ,y nu t g P g lo I M

V e tao ,y a

s em log C H co & n O , t i n U e n o r o C s t i & nu cross-sectional survey of family physicians by Karsh, B.T., Beasley, J.W. and Brown, R.L. in 2010 said commitment to one's workgroup was predicted by relationships with one's workgroup. One of the conclusions were that the strongest predictors variables

of were satisfaction variables and

commitment representing social relationships, and not time pressure, income, or autonomy.

Data

Interpretation Hypothesis relationship

H0(2d): between

for

There the

Objective 2,

Null is no

significant nurses’ total work experience in Dubai Health Authority and their intention to leave the organization. organization in case of a good offer % within Intention to leave the organization in case of a good offer

14 15.6%

21 23.3%

4 The above table reflects significant relationship (p= 0.006) and exhibits a pattern between the experience and intention to leave organization. 56.6% of nurses with experience between 0 to 5 years wanted to leave the organization. Almost equal number (almost 16%) of nurses with 6 to 10 years of experience agreed on intention to stay and leave. As the experience increased above 21 years, more nurses wanted to stay. Similar findings were noted in a recent 2016 study by Masum, A.K.M. et.al. in Turkey said Intention to quit was significantly and negatively correlated with age and experience; the older and more experienced nurses reported less intention to quit than younger nurses.

Data Interpretation for Objective 2, Null Hypothesis H0(2e): There is no significant relationship between nurses’ intention to leave the organization in case of a good offer with respect to their age.

Intention to

leave the organization in case of a good offer

Total

No Yes

Count % within Age of the Respondent

Count % within Age of the Respondent

Count % within Age of the Respondent There is higher intention to leave organization between ages 26 and 45 and steadily falls thereafter until retirement. The study findings are significant (Chi-square 0.00). A 2016 study by Masum, A.K.M. et.al. in Turkey also found significant and negative correlation between nurses’ intention to quit and nurses’ age, which was again consistent with another recent research by Delobelle, et.al. in 2011.

Data Interpretation for Objective 3, Null Hypothesis H0(3): There no significant relationship between the nurses’ commitment towards their organization and their job satisfaction.

The above values imply significant relationship between Job satisfaction and Organizational commitment levels among the Dubai hospital nurses (2 tailed <0.01). Similar findings were found by M. Topa and O. Gider in 2012; their study found a significant and positive relationship was between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among nurses and medical secretaries of three hospitals in Turkey. However, as per Celik in 2008, these two variables are highly interrelated. But even when employee have positive feelings towards their organization, it was still possible for such employees to be dissatisfied with their jobs in that organization. Furthermore, it said both job satisfaction and organizational commitment do not necessarily occur simultaneously: it is possible that an employee exhibits high levels of job satisfaction without having a sense of attachment to, or obligation to remain in the organization. Similarly, a highly committed employee may dislike the job he/she is doing (exhibiting low levels of job satisfaction) (McPhee & Townsend, 1992). Nurses’ total job satisfaction was significantly related to their affective commitment (2 tailed – 0.001) and total commitment levels (2 tailed -.006). Daneshfard and Ekvaniyan found in their recent study in 2012 that when organizational commitment (both affective and normative types of commitment) increases, jobs satisfaction increases too. And when organizational commitment (affective and normative commitment) decrease faculty member's and mangers job satisfaction decrease too.

TOTAL OC

RANGE

Similarly the study found the nurses’ total Organizational commitment levels were significantly correlated to their extrinsic job satisfaction (2 tailed -.0.006) and total job satisfaction levels (2 tailed -.0.006). Consistent findings were noted in a 2013 study by Srivastava, S. explored and found that Job satisfaction was positively related to Organizational Commitment. Similarly, a study by Markovits, Y., Davis, A.J., Fay, D & Dick, R.V. (2010) on a sample of 617 Greek employees from the private and public sectors confirmed that Extrinsic satisfaction and intrinsic satisfaction were strongly related to affective commitment and normative commitment. CONCLUSION Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are noteworthy issues that ensure proper nursing care in healthcare sector. This in turn has a great impact on customer satisfaction and makes them wish to refer the hospital to others. The present study explored the levels of job satisfaction and commitment towards the organization among the nurses who were employed in Dubai hospital. The findings of this study demonstrated the significance of various demographics like age, education, years of experience and specialties on the above two variables. Also, the study focuses to throw light on the relation between them. Nurses’ total job satisfaction was significantly related to their affective commitment and total commitment levels. Similarly the study found the nurses’ total Organizational commitment levels were significantly correlated to their extrinsic job satisfaction and total job satisfaction levels. The findings of this study were comparable with other international studies. Low satisfaction and commitment levels among the nurses hamper the quality of healthcare services. Consequently, organizations might suffer from different direct and indirect factors of satisfaction.