A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE TRANSLATED LUVALE VERSION OF THE ZAMBIA NATIONAL ANTHEM
This article critically analyses the translated version of the Zambia National Anthem, from English into Luvale, one of the 72 languages of Zambia. As Bassnet  indicates, â€œTranslation involves far more than replacement of lexical and grammatical items between languagesâ€. Critical examination of translated texts has often revealed that what the source language perceives as very important may not be considered as relevant in the target language. The translator ought therefore to be preoccupied with conveying the overall meaning of the source text. Critical discourse analysis theories provide the insights into semantic relations that exist between the source text (ST) and target text (TT). This study has attempted, through linguistic analysis of the source text, to establish existing semantic and formal equivalence relations between the Luvale translated version of the Zambia national anthem and the original English version. In analysing the English source text and Luvale target texts, this research work took into account both the macro and micro levels of text analysis. In addition to analysing linguistic and semantic relations between the English and the Luvale texts, this paper has also highlighted some cultural relations. The research discovered that modulation, omission, transposition, concision and other procedures were used. From the analysis, the translators of the Zambia national anthem, from English into Luvale, seem to agree with Bell  that â€œsomething is always lost in the process and translators can find themselves being accused of reproducing only part of the original and so betraying the authorâ€™s intentionsâ€. It is for this reason that scholars like Munday  have argued that it is not always possible to maintain all the semantic and structural nuances of the source text.